Additionally, if a batter is hit by a pitch in the strike zone the result is a dead ball and a strike charged to the batter. If it is strike three the batter is out.The ASA Rule is Rule 8, Section 1, F. "If no attempt is made to avoid being hit, the batter will not be awarded first base unless it was ball four."
The rule says "If no attempt is made". So, any attempt, even if a poor attempt, is good enough to allow the runner to be awarded first base.
Usually, umpires also give consideration to the speed of the pitcher and the movement of the pitch.